The modern theory concerning the evolution of man proposes that humans and apes derive from an apelike ancestor that lived on earth a few million years ago. The theory states that man, through a combination of environmental and genetic factors, emerged as a species to produce the variety of ethnicities seen today, while modern apes evolved on a separate evolutionary pathway. Perhaps the most famous proponent of evolutionary theory is Charles Darwin (1809-82) who authored The Origin of Species (1859) to describe his theory of evolution. It was based largely on observations which he made during his 5-year voyage around the world aboard the HMS Beagle (1831-36). Since then, mankind's origin has generally been explained from an evolutionary perspective. Moreover, the theory of man's evolution has been and continues to be modified as new findings are discovered, revisions to the theory are adopted, and earlier concepts proven incorrect are discarded.
Evolution Of Man - Concepts in Evolutionary Theory
The currently-accepted theory of the evolution of man rests on three major principles. These principles hinge on the innate ability which all creatures have to pass on their genetic information to their offspring through the reproductive process. An alternative explanation for homology is a common designer. According to this reasoning, the similarities in anatomical features between species point to a blueprint used by a Creator/Designer.
The first tenet is microevolution, the occurrence and build-up of mutations in the genetic sequence of an organism. Mutations are predominantly random and can occur naturally through errors in the reproductive process or through environmental impacts such as chemicals or radiation.
The second tenet of evolution is natural selection. Natural selection is a natural mechanism by which the fittest members of a species survive to pass on their genetic information, while the weakest are eliminated (die off) because they are unable to compete in the wild. Natural selection is often termed "survival of the fittest" or "elimination of the weakest."
The third tenet is speciation, which occurs when members of a species mutate to the point where they are no longer able to breed with other members of the same species. The new population becomes a reproductively isolated community that is unable to breed with its former community. Through speciation, the genes of the new population become isolated from the previous group.
A lake view with house boats on the lake
Photo: D.P. Zutshi
- Jammu and Kashmir, India.
- 34:18N, 74:91E; 1,583 m above sea level.
Dal is a Himalayan urban lake which is mainly used for tourism. Fishery is of secondary importance. The lake comprises five basins and a myriad of inter- connecting channels. It is one of the most beautiful lakes of India and the second largest lake in the State of Jammu and Kashmir. The lake is surrounded by mountains on its three sides. A large number of gardens and orchards have been laid along the shores. Dal Lake is unique in having hundreds of house boats which afford an opportunity to tourists to reside on the lake in an atmosphere of peace and tranquility. The boats are served by Shikaras which more or less resemble the gondolas of Venice but are smaller in size and are tastefully decorated. Besides the Moghul monuments the campus of the University of Kashmir is also located along the shores of the lake. Overlooking the lake are two hillocks which house the famous temples of Shankaracharya and Hari Parbat. A perennial inflow channel enters the lake from the north and supplies about 80% of the water. Towards the southwest side an outflow channel drains the lake water into a tributary of the River Jhelum. Parallel to this exit is a stone-lined canal which connects the lake with the tributary. This channel is used for movement of boats in and out of the lake and prevents inundation of floating gardens during high floods.
The famous Moghul gardens around the lake have been laid during 16-17th century and their number was about five hundred but now only a few of these have survived. The origin of the lake has remained unresolved. It is believed by some geologists that the Dal Lake is the remnant of a Pleistocene oligotrophic lake which once covered the entire valley of Kashmir. There are other geologists who believe Dal to be a flood plain lake. The lake water is being used for irrigation of vegetable fields which have grown in number and extent during recent years. The present maximum depth of the lake is 6 m (Nagin basin). Many aquatic plants growing in the lake are used as food, fodder and compost.
ecently I wrote a series of articles on Kashmir and one article was on Pakistan s principled stand on Kashmir. After reading this article many people contacted me with different comments. Majority of the people appreciated the article and found new issues related to the Kashmir dispute. These are the issues which were not previously brought up by the Pakistani officials or highlighted by pro Pakistani Kashmiri leaders; and even not fully exploited by the pro independent camp. Of course there were some that criticised me for raising these matters at this critical juncture.
In view of these people we should focus our attention on criticising India and what they are doing in Kashmir; rather than bringing Pakistan s role into equation and diverting from the real issue. When I asked him to elaborate what he meant by the real issue, he said: Of course the real issue is to get rid of Hindu India&we want to end their domination in Kashmir.
Then he gave a detailed list of atrocities committed by the Indian forces in Kashmir, and stressed that we must help our Muslim Kashmiri brothers suffering because of the Indian imperialism. I said let us assume for a moment that we have ended the Indian rule there, then what are we going to do. He said once we have achieved that goal then we would join Pakistan.
What about those Kashmiris who don t want to join Pakistan, I asked. All Kashmiri Muslims want to join Pakistan and those who don t want this, can go to hell and stay with their Hindu masters, he said angrily. I tried to explain that not all Kashmiri Muslims wish to join Pakistan, and that Kashmir is multi religious and a motherland of many ethnic groups; and they surely don t want to join Pakistan. I further said that we don t want division of Kashmir on ethnic grounds, and one danger of division is that fire of communalism could engulf other parts of the Sub Continent.
All Muslims and non- Muslims could live in peace and harmony in an independent Kashmir, and teach lesson of co existence and friendship to the rest of South Asia. He didn t like to hear what I said. An independent Kashmir could not survive, he said, and in any case there is no provision of an independent Kashmir in the UN Resolutions. There is no provision of usurping Gilgit and Baltistan in the UN resolutions either, I replied. Also there is no provisions in UN resolutions to keep the Kashmiri families divided, and kills and torture those who ask for freedom; and yet it has happened, and it continues to happen.
When India and Pakistan sincerely want to resolve the Kashmir dispute and have peace in the region, they will find a way to do it no matter what is or is not in the UN resolutions. Of course we had disagreement on many aspects of the Kashmiri struggle, to me it was a struggle for national emancipation and that included all areas of the State; to him it was a struggle to get independence from India and joining Pakistan.
To me India and Pakistan were both occupiers with territorial aims; and the fact that more human rights violations take place in the territory under India does not make territory under Pakistan less controversial or make it part of Pakistan. People who live in a Kashmiri territory under Pakistan do not live in heaven, they are also subject to human rights violations, but these violations are different in nature. People of these areas have not taken arms against Pakistan and that is the main reason why there is less human rights violations on this side of the LOC. During this conversation he pointed out why is it that I don t write about India and criticise atrocities there.
I told him that it was a big lie, and propaganda of those who don t like my ideology and my writings. Then I gave him details of my writings where I have criticised India for gross human rights violations in Kashmir; but at the same time I pointed out that I want to keep balance: criticise India where India is wrong but do not shy away to criticise Pakistan for her mistakes. Apart from that there is another big difference and people don t seemed to appreciate this. I write more about Pakistan to expose Pakistan s Kashmir policy.
The Indian policy on Kashmir is clear: they want to keep Kashmir no matter how many people die there and what is cost to India. In other words India is enemy of those who want freedom from India; and once that is established then there is nothing more to write. Pakistan on the other hand has many standards on Kashmir. Like India they want to keep the Kashmiri territory under their occupation; and get the rest of Kashmir. But they tell Kashmiri people that we are doing this for you & we are fighting to get you freedom & we are fighting in support of your right of self-determination etc.
In other words Pakistan thinks it is in interest of the Kashmiri people to become part of Pakistan; and it is also in their interest not to ask for basic civil rights or even a right to vote in case of Gilgit and Baltistan. We are asked not only to accept this but also to remain quiet and sing praises for Pakistan; and when we fail to do this then our loyalty is in question, and we are criticised for being soft on India.
In my view more time and effort needs to be spent on exposing unfriendly acts of a friend rather than visible acts of an enemy; and in doing so if I have to pay a price than so be it. I told him that real issue is the right of self- determination of the Kashmiri people, both India and Pakistan want to get the Kashmiri territory but they are not willing to concede the right of the people that they can have independence and sovereignty.
In order to deny this right to the people of Kashmir both governments are using different methods and strategies, but the objective is same and that is to get Kashmir. No matter how mildly you want to word it- call areas under Pakistan, Pakistani administered Kashmir, and call areas under India, occupied Kashmir, but the fact remains that in both parts Kashmiris don t have a say; and it is will of New Delhi and Islamabad which prevails. India despite all the human rights violations and what they have done to Kashmir, is planning to hold elections in there; but we see no such signs that Islamabad will extend right of franchise to people of Gilgit and Baltistan.
If situation is that both countries have territorial aim in Kashmir, and welfare of the people is not on top of their agenda in Kashmir, then we need to learn from history and think as Kashmiris and fight for our rights. It would be unfortunate that if in 21st Century we still don ‘t understand what is freedom, and boast that we are fighting Pakistan’ s war in Kashmir.
Behind the Kashmir Conflict
Mohammed Amin was killed slowly over three days, kicked, pummeled, beaten, cut. They asked him where he had hidden the weapons. He said he had no weapons. They tortured him. They asked again, "where did you hide the weapons?" And again, he said he had no weapons. And again they tortured him. He was taken to his house so he could show the soldiers where the weapons were buried. But there was nothing to show. And again, they tortured him. The soldiers took Mohammed to the outskirts of his village, tied him to a tree, and emptied their cartridges into his body. They left him there, still tied, slumped over, full of holes, covered in blood. And this is how his family and friends found him. "...his body was riddled with bullets, his bone protruded from his forehead, one eye was out, and all the fingers of his left hand were missing. His cape was full of holes." That is the description a witness gave to the human rights organization, Human Rights Watch, which documented Mohammed Amin's killing.
Amin had been a member of the Hizb-ul-Mujahedin since 1993. In 1995, he was arrested and detained for one month. During that time, his family was not allowed to see him. When he was finally let go it was clear he'd been badly beaten. He was given electric shocks, his body had been crushed under heavy weights, and he'd been forced to drink his own urine. Over the next year, Amin was arrested and tortured eight times, each time leaving him a broken man.
Human rights abuses have been a part of a campaign by the Indian army against Muslim Kashmiris, particularly since 1990. The abuse is manifested in the following types of violations: "disappearances," torture, and the rape and molestation of Muslim women.
Below is a list of incidents reported by Amnesty International, the Kashmir Quarterly (a publication of the Kashmiri-Canadian Council), and the United States Department of State.
How To Detect A Heart Attack
The first hour of a heart attack is known as the "golden hour." If you get help during that first hour, your chances of recovery are greatly improved. Yet many people hesitate to get help when they first experience symptoms. They're afraid of the embarrassment of going to the emergency room and finding that nothing is wrong. So, it is important that you know the symptoms that may indicate that a heart attack is in progress.
Many people who have chronic kidney disease don't know it, because the early signs can be very subtle. It can take many years to go from chronic kidney disease (CKD) to kidney failure. Some people with CKD live out their lives without ever reaching kidney failure.
However, for people at any stage of kidney disease, knowledge is power. Knowing the symptoms of kidney disease can help you get the treatment you need to feel your best. If you or someone you know has one or more of the following symptoms of kidney disease, or you are worried about kidney problems, see a doctor for blood and urine tests. Remember, many of the symptoms can be due to reasons other than kidney disease. The only way to know the cause of your symptoms is to see your doctor.
Early Soviet poster, before the modern awareness: "The smoke of chimneys is the breath of Soviet Russia"
Pollution became a popular issue after WW2, when the aftermath of atomic warfare and testing made evident the perils of radioactive fallout. Then a conventional catastrophic event The Great Smog of 1952 in London killed at least 8000 people. This massive event prompted some of the first major modern environmental legislation, The Clean Air Act of 1956.
Pollution began to draw major public attention in the United States between the mid-1950s and early 1970s, when Congress passed the Noise Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the National Environmental Policy Act.
Recent events have once again generated some curiosity and interest in the issue of Jammu & Kashmir. Basic facts pertaining to this issue are well established. However, there has been a concerted dis-information campaign that presents a distorted historical account of the developments that led to the irrevocable accession of the state of Jammu & Kashmir to India; the subsequent wars inflicted by Pakistan on India and the current situation in the once tranquil and beautiful Kashmir Valley. The involvement of Pakistan in fomenting insurgency and terrorism in the border states of India, especially Jammu & Kashmir, has been well documented and accepted by all impartial observers. While the current violence and disturbances instigated and abetted by Pakistan in the Kashmir Valley are there for all to see, the historical perspective needs to be put in the correct, factual light. The following pages give the factual background of the issue of Jammu & Kashmir.
THE JAMMU AND KASHMIR ISSUE
Accession to India